A system model for green manufacturing
Manufacturing systems evolution is afunction in multiple external and internal factors. With today's global awareness of environmental risks as well as the pressing needs to compete through efficiency, manufacturing systems are evolving into a new paradigm. This paper presents a system model for the new green manufacturing paradigm. The model captures various planning activities to migrate from a less green into a greener and more eco-efficient manufacturing. The various planning stages are accompanied by the required control metrics as well as various green tools in an open mixed architecture. The system model is demonstrated by an industrial case study. The proposed model is a comprehensive qualitative answer to the question of how to design and/or improve green manufacturing systems as well as a roadmap for future quantitative research to better evaluate this new paradigm. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.