Simple implementations of fractional-order driving-point impedances: Application to biological tissue models

Kapoulea S.
Psychalinos C.
Elwakil A.S.

A novel procedure for the circuit implementation of the driving-point impedance of frequency-domain material models, constructed from fractional-order elements of arbitrary type and order, is introduced in this work. Following this newly introduced concept, instead of emulating separately each fractional-order element in the model under consideration, the direct emulation of the complete model can be achieved through the approximation of the total impedance function. The magnitude and phase frequency responses of the impedance function are first extracted and approximated through curve-fitting-based techniques. A rational integer-order driving-point impedance function is then obtained and realized using appropriately configured passive and/or active topologies. Comparison between the conventional method and the proposed method reveals that the achieved benefit is the significant reduction of the passive and/or active components count. Verification of the introduced concept is performed through circuit simulation results using OrCAD PSpice in the case of a root/stem/electrode interface model, as well as through experimental results where the driving-point input impedance of the human respiratory system under different health conditions is synthesized on a Field-Programmable Analog Array device. © 2021 Elsevier GmbH