Investigation of properties limiting efficiency in Cu2ZnSnSe4-based solar cells
We have investigated different nonidealities in Cu2ZnSnSe4-CdS-ZnO solar cells with 9.7% conversion efficiency, in order to determine what is limiting the efficiency of these devices. Several nonidealities could be observed. A barrier of about 300 meV is present for electron flow at the absorber-buffer heterojunction leading to a strong crossover behavior between dark and illuminated current-voltage curves. In addition, a barrier of about 130 meV is present at the Mo-absorber contact, which could be reduced to 15 meV by inclusion of a TiN interlayer. Admittance spectroscopy results on the devices with the TiN backside contact show a defect level with an activation energy of 170 meV. Using all parameters extracted by the different characterization methods for simulations of the two-diode model including injection and recombination currents, we come to the conclusion that our devices are limited by the large recombination current in the depletion region. Potential fluctuations are present in the devices as well, but they do not seem to have a special degrading effect on the devices, besides a probable reduction in minority carrier lifetime through enhanced recombination through the band tail defects. © 2011-2012 IEEE.