Fabrication of Ultra-Pure Anisotropic Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles via Simple and Cost-Effective Route: Implications for UTI and EAC Medications
The purposes of this work are to evaluate the antimicrobial, antibiofilm, anticancer, and antioxidant abilities of anisotropic zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) synthesized by a cost-effective and eco-friendly sol–gel method. The synthesized ZnO NPs were entirely characterized by UV-Vis, XRD, FTIR, HRTEM, zeta potential, SEM mapping, BET surface analyzer, and EDX elemental analysis. Antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of ZnO NPs were investigated against multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria and yeast causing serious diseases like urinary tract infection (UTI). The anticancer activity was performed against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC). Additionally, antioxidant scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was observed. The synthesized ZnO NPs exhibited an absorption peak at 385.0 nm characteristic to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Data obtained from HRTEM, SEM, and XRD confirmed the anisotropic crystalline nature of the prepared ZnO NPs with an average particle size of 68.2 nm. The calculated surface area of the prepared ZnO NPs was 10.62 m2/g and the porosity was 13.16%, while pore volume was calculated to be 0.013 cm3/g and the average pore size was about 3.10 nm. The prepared ZnO NPs showed promising antimicrobial activity against all tested UTI-causing pathogens. It showed a prominent antimicrobial capability against Candida tropicalis with a zone of inhibition (ZOI) reaching 22.4 mm, 13 mm ZOI for Bacillus subtilis, and 12.5 mm ZOI for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Additionally, the prepared ZnO NPs showed enhanced biofilm repression of about 79.33%, 72.94%, and 33.68% against B. subtilis, C. tropicalis, and P. aeruginosa, respectively. Moreover, the prepared ZnO NPs had a powerful antioxidant property with 33.0% scavenging ability after applied DPPH assay. Surprisingly, upon ZnO NPs treatment, cancer cell viability reduced from 100 to 58.5% after only 24 h due to their unique antitumor activity. Therefore, according to these outstanding properties, this study could give insights for solving serious industrial, pharmaceutical, and medical challenges, particularly in the EAC and UTI medications. © 2019, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.