Power and energy analysis of fractional-order electrical energy storage devices
Characterizing and modeling electrical energy storage devices is essential for their proper integration in larger systems. However, basic circuit elements, i.e. resistors, inductors, and capacitors, are not well-suited to explain their complex frequency-dependent behaviors. Instead, fractional-order models, which are based on non-integer-order differential equations in the time-domain and include for instance the constant phase element (CPE), are mathematically more fit to this end. Here, the electrical power and energy of fractional-order capacitance and inductance are derived in both steady-state and transient conditions, and verified using a number of commercial supercapacitors and fractional-order coils. A generalized expression for the energy stored in a supercapacitor/fractional-order inductor is derived and found to depend on the capacitance/inductance and the dispersion coefficient of the device, as well as on the properties of the applied voltage waveform. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.