Optimal Charging and Discharging of Supercapacitors
In this paper, we discuss the optimal charging and discharging of supercapacitors to maximize the delivered energy by deploying the fractional and multivariate calculus of variations. We prove mathematically that the constant current is the optimal charging and discharging method under R s -CPE model of supercapacitors. The charging and round-trip efficiencies have been mathematically analyzed for constant current charging and discharging. © 2020 The Electrochemical Society ("ECS"). Published on behalf of ECS by IOP Publishing Limited.