Fractional order butterworth filter: Active and passive realizations
This paper presents a general procedure to obtain Butterworth filter specifications in the fractional-order domain where an infinite number of relationships could be obtained due to the extra independent fractional-order parameters which increase the filter degrees-of-freedom. The necessary and sufficient condition for achieving fractional-order Butterworth filter with a specific cutoff frequency is derived as a function of the orders in addition to the transfer function parameters. The effect of equal-orders on the filter bandwidth is discussed showing how the integer-order case is considered as a special case from the proposed procedure. Several passive and active filters are studied to validate the concept such as Kerwin-Huelsman-Newcomb and Sallen-Key filters through numerical and Advanced Design System (ADS) simulations. Moreover, these circuits are tested experimentally using discrete components to model the fractional order capacitor showing great matching with the numerical and circuit simulations. © 2013 IEEE.