Enhancing the improved Howland circuit

Maundy B.J.
Elwakil A.S.
Gift S.J.G.

In this paper, an enhanced version of the improved Howland circuit is proposed. An improvement in output impedance to a maximum factor of two is obtained. The theoretical derivation is presented, including analysis from a two-port network perspective, and both simulation and experimental results using a general purpose opamp confirm the expected result. © 2019 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.