Comparative Study of Raw Algae, Physical, and Chemical Algal Activated Carbon Vs. Commercial Activated Carbon for M. Orange Removal

Abstract: Various natural and synthetic adsorbent materials were applied for dye removal from polluted wastewater. Using cost-effective, eco-friendly materials became the main target of researchers worldwide. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate algal biomasses in various forms such as raw, physical, and chemical activated carbon, which was prepared from the algal biomasses. Additionally, the natural adsorbents-originated materials efficiency will be compared by the commercial activated carbon efficiency in Methyl orange removal. At first, raw algae were collected, washed, dried, and milled into smaller sizes and the Raw algae material was saved and identified as (RA). After that, Physical, and H3PO4 Chemically activated carbon were prepared and named PA, and H3A, respectively. Characterization analysis such as DLS, Zetapotential, FT-IR, SEM, and XRD was performed for the prepared materials. Optimization processes were displayed for the three prepared materials RA, PA, H3A, and the purchased commercial activated carbon to obtain the highest Methyl orange removal efficiency.

One Factor At a Time experiments followed by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) experiments were applied in the optimization process and the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was used to analyze the data. Furthermore, Isotherm, and kinetics were applied to explain the adsorption mechanism nature. In conclusion, results suggested that H3A was the potent adsorbent that achieved highest removal efficiency of 92.15 % removal of 240 ppm Methyl orange by using 1.6 g/l dose and 71 min. contact time by shaking at 120 rpm according to numerical RSM analysis