Nuzzer: A large-scale device-free passive localization system for wireless environments
The widespread usage of WLANs and mobile devices has fostered the interest in localization systems for wireless environments. The majority of research in the context of wireless-based localization systems has focused on device-based active localization, in which devices are attached to tracked entities. Recently, device-free passive localization (DfP) has been proposed where the tracked entity is neither required to carry devices nor to participate actively in the localization process. Previous studies have focused on small areas and/or controlled environments. In this paper, we present the design, implementation, and analysis of Nuzzer, a large-scale DfP localization system, which tracks entities in real environments, rich in multipath. We first present probabilistic techniques for DfP localization of a single entity and evaluate their performance both analytically and in typical office buildings. Our results show that Nuzzer gives location estimates with less than 2-meters median distance error. We then give an algorithm for estimating the number of entities in an area of interest and localizing them into coarse-grained zones to enhance the scalability of the system. This indicates the suitability of Nuzzer to a large number of application domains. © 2002-2012 IEEE.