Partial fraction expansion–based realizations of fractional-order differentiators and integrators using active filters
Approximations of the fractional-order differentiator and integrator operators s±r are proposed in this work. These approximations target the realization of these operators using standard active filter transfer functions. Hence, circuit implementations in integrated circuit form or in discrete component form are significantly facilitated. Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) realizations of the proposed approximations are given and validated via simulations using the AMS 0.35 μm CMOS technology, while experimental results using operational amplifier circuits are tested and confirm the proposed theory. © 2019 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.